Add water to a large vessel. Add all ingredients except chicken and stir until salt and sugar are dissolved. Place chicken in brine and refrigerate at least 12 hours and up to 24. Remove chicken from brine. Discard brine. Rinse chicken well under cold running water and place chicken breast side up on a roasting rack or baking dish. Dry well with paper towels.
Preheat oven to 375°. Truss or tie the chicken if you like but we like it just as well roasted untied. Allow to rest at room temperature for about 30 minutes to take off the chill. Make sure chicken skin is completely dry and rub chicken skin with butter. Place in oven and roast until an instant-read thermometer reads 165°, about an hour depending on the size of the chicken. Remove from oven and allow to rest for 6–8 minutes before carving.